Web-development has mainly two parts and it is front-end development and back-end development. I already have written an article about what is Front-end development? If you don’t know about it then you can read it here.
Now let’s talk about what is back-end development. A back-end is a place where all ugly processes happen to provide more and better functionalities to your website. Back-end development is server side development where all behind the scene processes takes place to make a website more interactive and functional.
In front-end development developers designs client-side thing like a structure of a webpage, look and design etc. But at back-end side, all that things and processes happen to make the website live and to provide a connection.
The back-end of website or web service is responsible for how the website or web service should work. It contains code that powers and runs the whole website or web service. For an example, front-end developer designs one button to call some process but the back-end developer writes code for how that process will work and responds to that request on the button press activity.
Back-end development is all about development at the server side. And back-end of web handles tasks like connections to users, handling a large amount of traffic, accepting requests from clients and responding to that request accordingly, and also database handling tasks like establishing the connection with the database system, writing data into the database, updating data, and fetching data according to requirements. Mainly back-end consists of three major parts like a server, server software, and database (Datacenter).
A server can be any computer or machine which helps to provide a connection with users and it always not needs to be any physical machine because it can be any software running on any computer or any virtual server that can run on any modern computer and compatible machine. Server helps to receive a request from the user and respond to that request. The server requires to maintains a large number of users coming to website or web service.
Now server software is software that programmers design to communicate with database and fetching and writing data into the database and communicating with users and to provide more functionalities to websites and to handle and run the whole web service. Different types of websites and web services have different types of server software designed by their developers and programmers according to their website and requirements. Server software contains code that powers whole website or web service and code that performs different types of tasks and processes required in the website. Writing code for back-end is a very challenging task because the performance of the whole website depends on it, any mistake can ruin the whole thing. Server software also manages user requests, and user traffic and all that back-end tasks.
Server software provides a bridge between front-end and back-end resources like a database. Because Front-end won’t work if it is not connected with the back-end. Now to built back-end you need to use programming languages also called back-end programming languages. Back-end programming languages are none other than normal programming languages Java, C# etc. But PHP is the most widely used programming language for back-end development.
PHP is the most popular and widely used programming languages to develop back-end of websites and web services. Php powers more than 80% of websites worldwide. PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor and it is also called as “Personal Home Page”. PHP is used on popular products like Facebook and WordPress, Wikipedia etc.
The reason behind the popularity of PHP is that it is specifically designed for server-side development and when it was introduced there were very few options available to make dynamic website and PHP was easier to use to develop back-end of a website and connection with databases.
Nowadays there are so many options are available to develop back-end of websites and web services. You can use programming language according to your requirements and preference.
The database is also one of the main parts of the back-end. And it used to store data into the database and retrieve data when necessary, for an example if any website provides a form to collect information about users then it will store things like name, age, address, etc, about users in the database. You can later use that data when necessary by retrieving data from the database. To store and fetch data from the database system you need to write the different query and for that different query languages are used like SQL etc.
A relational database system is a most common type of database system. In a relational database system, all data is stored in a relative form. In a relational database system data is stored in table form, row and column wise like a spreadsheet. For an example, each row contains different entries of users and columns contains different data about each user like name, age address. To store and fetch data from the database you need to use a programming language called a query language. SQL is a widely used query language for the database system.
SQL is most commonly used query language in relational database servers like MySQL, MariaDB, Microsoft SQL Server, SQLite. Full form of SQL is a structured query language. SQL used to perform operations like insert, delete, update, search etc on the database. SQL can also do more than that to maintain the database. You can write different queries to perform different operations using SQL. Syntaxes used in most of the databases are almost similar except small differences.
SELECT Username, Password FROM User WHERE Email = 'example.com'
In this example, it will fetch data of columns Username and Password from User table where row’s email entry is ‘example.com’. By using this query you can get data from the database server.